Diary and Notes
by Louisiana Barraud Cocke
Notes from James history of England
Bremo. Friday Decr 24th. 1819.
The history of all ancient nations is much involved in obscurity, uncertainty, and contradiction. But as these adventures of barbarous nations even if they were correctly recorded could afford no entertainment to men born in a more cultivated age this uncertainty is not to be regretted. All Ancient writers agreed in representing the first inhabitants of Britain as a tribe of Gauls or Belta who setteled that island from the neighboring continent. The south-east parts of Britain had allready, before the age of Reason made the requisite step towards a civil settlement by the introduction of tillage & agriculture. The other inhabitants of the island still maintained themselves by pasture. They were cloathed with the skins of beasts. The religion of the Britons was one of the most considerable parts of their government. The Druids who were their priests held great authority among them. They were the most superstitious nation in the world at that time.
Caesar having overrun all Gaul by his victories first cast his eye on Britain determining to destroy it. A.D. 55 In the reign of Suetonius Paulinus was invested with the command of an army & carried his victorious arms northwards defeated numberless barbarians and burnt London to ashes. and finding that the island of Mona non Anglesey was the chief seat of the Druids he resolved to attack it. The Britons endeavored to prevent them from approaching by running about with flaming torches in the hands howling & setting every thing on fire they came near but the Romans drove them from the field and put the Druids to death. After this the Britons often had entertene broils and whenever they wanted assistence they called on the Romans to help them and thus it was when they were called upon by the Britons that instead of defeating them they fought them and nearly overran them. The Britons had already began to grow quite effeminate and the Romans having assisted them so frequently that they were unable any longer to afford them any relief sent them word that they must take up arms & fight in their own defense But as they had been entirely unaccustomed to fighting they came off badly. The Picts of Scots who dwelt in the northern parts beyon the Wall of Antonious taking advantage of the absence of the Romans began to make incursions upon their peasible and effeminate neighbours who accustomed to have recourse to the emperors again made supplications to Rome for their assistance and one Legion was sent over for their protection. This force repelled their invasion routed their army & having driven them to their former limits went back to the assistance of the southern provinces of the empire. This was the last time that the Britons got any help from the Romans. They rebuilt the wall of Serverus which was built entirely of stone and having completed this last good office to the inhabitants, they bid a final adieu to Briton in the year 448.
The Heptarchy was established in Briton after a violent contest of more than a hundred years. It consisted of 7 Saxon kingdoms namely, Kent, Northumberland, East Anglia, Mercia, Essex, Sussex Wessex. In the reign of Ethelbert the Christian religion was introduced into Kent & some other kingdoms of the heptarchy and although the king Ethelbert was not convicted he permitted the missionaries to remain in peace saying that as they had undertaken the journey solely for the benefit of his subjects he would allow them to remain & deliver their doctrines to the people.
Gregory and Augustine were the two Romans sent to introduce the Christian religion in Britain and they nearly effected their design. After many intreaties they brought over Ethelbert to their wishes and he was baptized. His example had great influence with his subjects but he employed no force to bring them over to his new doctrine. Ethelbert governed the kingdom of Kent 50 years and dying in the year 616 left the crown to his son Eadbald. This prince deserted for some time the Christian faith and his whole people immediately returned with him to idolatry.
But Eadbald returned again to the profession of Christianity and all his people returned with him. He died in 640 having reigned 24 years. he left two sons Erminford and Ercombert, who inherited the right of succession. Ercombert though the younger son found means to mount the throne. He reigned 24 years and left the crown to Egbert his son who reigned 9 years. he murdered the two sons of his uncle Erminford. Edrie son of Egbert & Lothaire his uncle reigned jointly and at their death Widred brother of the latter obtained possession of the crown. Eadbert, Ethelbert and Alric his descendants successively mounted the throne. After the death of the last mentioned the royal family of Kent was extinguished and Egbert king of Wessen, who dissolved the Saxon Heptarchy and united the several kingdoms under his dominion.
The kings of all the other kingdoms of the heptarchy ascended to the throne in a legal manner untill it was finally destined by all it's kingdoms being united in one great state. It's territories were nearly of the same extent with what is now properly termed England and a favourable opportunity presented itself to the Anglo-Saxons, of establishing a civilized monarchy. This great event took place about the year 827.
The kingdoms of the Heptarchy though united by so recent a conquest appeared to be firmly cemented into one state under the government of Egbert, and as their language, laws, and religion of the different peoples resembled very much a union also in government opened to them the pleasant prospect of future tranquillity. But these flattering views were soon overcast for the Danes committed the most savage inroads upon them and at last
reduced them to grievous servitude. this was in the year 827 and about 5 years after they invaded it a second time. At that time Egbert had established his monarchy over England. The Danes landed on the island of Shepay and having pillaged it escaped without any opposition. When they entered Dorcetshire in their next expedition they were encountered by Egbert at Charmouth. They fought and the battle was bloody. The Danes maintained their post which they had taken and made good their retreat to their ships. Two years after they entered into an alliance with the Britons of Cornwall & made an inroad with them into the county of Devon but were met at Hengesdown and entirely defeated. In this deplorable state of Britain Egbert unfortunately died and left the government to his son Ethelnolf. This prince was nothing like his father in talents or vigour. He began his reign with dividing his dominions and delivering up to his son Wthelstan the conquered provinces of Kent, Essex and Sussex. The Danes continued to make frequent incursions upon the Briton but they did not do much injury to the country nor the inhabitants. Ethelnolf dying left the government to Ethelbald & Ethelbert his two sons between whom England was equally shared. Ethelbald was a profligate prince . His reign was short and Ethelbert, his brother succeding to the government, behaved himself during a reign of 5 years in a manner more worthy of his rank. Their kingdom was often infested by the danes but they were allmost always defeated.
Ethered succeeded his brother Ethelbert. He defended himself with as much bravery as his predecessor but enjoyed no tranquility during the whole of his reign from the repeted invasions of the Danes. Alfred the younger brother of this prince accompanied him in all his enterprises. The first landing of the Danes in the reign of Ethered was among the East Angles who were more anxious for their own present safety than for the common entered into a separate treaty with them & furnished them with horses by which means they went by land into the Kingdom of Northumberland where they seized the city of York and defended against two princes of that kingdom who died in the assault. They ventured as far as Mercia & took up winter quarters at Nottingham. The Mercians applying to Ethered he set out with Alfred conducting a large army to Nottingham and went into Northumberland; Thence they broke into East-Anglia defeated and took prisoner Edmund their king and afterwards murdered him. The Danes went next to Reading from whence they committed great ravages upon the neighbouring county. The Mercians anxious of shaking off their dependence on Ethered would not join their forces to his, and that prince accompanied by Alfred was forced to march against the enemy, with the West-Saxons alone. The Danes having been defeated in a union shut themselves up in their garrisons but very soon quitted them routed the West-Saxons & obliged them to raise the siege. An action followed at Aston in Berkshire, where the English were very near being entirely defeated in the forepart of the day but they afterwards obtained the victory. Another battle was fought at Bassing where the Danes were more successful and having a reinforcement from their own country they became very terrible to the English. In these confusions Ethered died of a wound & left the government to Alfred. This prince showed early marks of great virtue & shining talents he acquired an extensive knowledge of the Latin tongue, he learnt to read the Saxon poems. His whole mind being absorbed in these elegant pursuits, he looked upon his succession to the throne as more of an object of regret than of triumph, but being called to the throne in preference to his brothers children & as it was by his fathers will he shook off his propensities to literature and exerted himself in the defence of his people. Immediately after the death of his brother he was forced to take up arms in opposition to the Danes who had seized Wilton and were laying waste the county around it. He had a small army which contained those whom he assembled in a sudden gave them battle and was near gaining the advantage but by pursuing the victory too far he lost it. The loss of the Danes was so great that fearing Alfred would receive daily reinforcement from his subjects they were very willing to stipulate for a false retreat to leave the kingdom. They were for that purpose carried to London where they were to take up winter quarters but they made so much havoc in therethat they were removed to Lincolnshire a county which they had before reduced to desolation. They suddenly turned back upon Mercia and laid the whole county desolate by fire & sword. The next year a numerous army of the Danes again entered England under 3 princes, Guthram, Oscital, and Amund. Part of these under the command of Haldene marched into Northumberland & took up quarters another part took quarters at Cambridge and then seized Wereham in Dorset the very centre of Alfreds dominions, they routed his army and marching westward got possession of Exeter, whilst the exasperated Britons were engaged in defence of this place they learned that another Army of the Danes had landed at Chippenham and were ravaging the whole county around. They were so disheartened at this that some left the county and went into Wales or fled beyond the sea. After the Danes had ravaged the county until it became very desolate Alfred finding it a thing almost impossible to drive them out of thecounty entirely and knowing that the kingdom of the East Angles and Northumberland were totally desolate by their frequent inroads he proposed to go there and settle with Guthram their leader provided that they would become Christians. To this they all readily consented & they were all baptized. Alfred gave Guthram the name of Athelstan & took him as his adopted Son.
The few remaining Danes Alfred settled in the five counties of Derby, Leicestor, Stanford, Lincoln, and Nottingham. He was not molested by these barbarian savages for 5 years after and he employed this interval of peace in restoring order to his kingdom.
The king rebuilt all the cities which were destroyed particularly London. he built a considerable road fare the first that ever was in England. At length Hastings the famous Danish chief landed in Kent with 330 sail -- he entered the Thames and fortifying Milton spread his forces over the county and committed great depredations. Alfred flew to the defense of his people with a select band of soldiers and gathering his armed militia from all parts appeared in the field with a larger army thanthe enemy. He routed them in almost every axion. The Danes left after attempting in vain to destroy it & went to Banflete where another army of the English met them did great execution and carried off the wife & two sons of Hastings but Alfred generally gave them back to him provided they would leave the kingdom. Thus did Alfred restore full tranquility to England & provide for the future security of the government. The East-Anglians and the Northumbrian Danes paid humble submission to him whenever he appeared. The Welsh also acknowledged his authority. He died in the vigour of his age in the year 901 after a reign of 29 years and a half in which he deservedly attained the appellation of Alfred the Great and the title of Founder of the English monarchy. Edward the Elder ascended the throne at the death of his father and although he equalled him in military talents he was his inferior in erudition. He found immediately on his accession that Ethalwald his cousin german who insisted on a preferable title was among his partisans and marching to Wenboarne he took it and determined todefend himself to the last extremity. But Edward went to the town with a great army and Ethalwald finding he would be routed with all his men made his escape and went first into Normandy then into Northumberland. There he got a great number of them to join him and march against the king, the East Anglian Danes joined his party they made an incursion into the counties of Glocester Oxford and Welts and having ravaged these places they appeared with their booty before the king who had commanded a large army he routed them entirely killed Ethalwald and having freed himself from the fear of so dangerous a competitor made peace on advantageous terms and went to work to restore England to a state of tranquillity. In order to do this nothing was wanting but to subject the Northumbrians, who assisted by the Danes who were settled over the kingdom of Mercia and often produced troubles in the centere of England. Edward to divert the force of these enemies sent a fleet to attack them at sea. he fell upon them at Kent hall in the county of Stafford put them to rout, got a great dealof booty, and pursued them with great slaughter to their own country. All the rest of Edwards reign was a series of continued and successful action against the Northumbrians, the East-Angles and the foreign Danes. He subdued the East Angles & the Northumbrians. Several tribes of the Britons were subdued by him and even the Picts & Scotts were obliged to show him marks of submission. He died in 925. His kingdom devolved to Athelstan his natural son. He reigned about 16 years during which time nothing of any importance occurred. The Danes did not produce any disturbances amoung the Britons whilst he sat upon the throne and he occupied his reign very advantageously in endeavoring to give security to his kingdom & government. He was succeeded by Edward his brother, who immediately on his accession met with disturbances from the restless Northumbrians. But he marched suddenly with an army into their country & almost entirely overcame them. In order to assure him of their obedience they offered to embrace Christianity. He conquered Cumberland. This prince was murdered whilst he was solemnizing a festival in Glocester by Leolf a robber. He reigned 5 years. His children being to young to govern a kingdom his brother Edred was promoted to the throne. His reign like those of all most all of his ancestors was disturbed by the invasions of the Northumbrian Danes who though often quelled, had never been entirely conquered. He attacked them & having put them to flight wasted their country with fire & sword; he then returned with his forces. He fought frequent battles against them afterwards and dying after a reign of 9 years, his nephew Edway was placed upon the throne as his children were infants. This prince came to the throne in the seven- teenth year of his age. During his short reign he was not molested by wars and tumults and was killed to give peaceable possession of the government to Edgar his younger brother. He mounted the throne very young and notwithstanding, Soon discovered an excellent understanding in the management of his public affairs and his whole reign was employed in supporting and improving the internal government of his kingdom.He built & maintained a considerable Navy. and he was always so well prepared for the inroads of the Danes that they darst not approach the country. It was in the reign of Edgar that England was cleared of wolves which did nearly as much mischief as any enemy. He took great pains in hunting these animals and finding that they had all fled and had taken shelter in the mountains of Wales he altered the tribute of money and imposed on their Princes an annual tribute of three hundred wolves. and in this way they were as nearly exterpated that one has never been seen on the island since. Edgar died after a reign of 16 years and in the 33 year of his age. He was succeeded by Edward his son. -- This prince was only 15 years old at the time he was promoted to the throne. he reigned four years and there passed nothing memorable during that time. His death alone was memorable and tragical. He was hunting one day in Dorsetshire and being led by the chase near Corfe-castle where Elfrida his step mother resided (who was opposed to his accession under pretence that her son who was not the lawful heir should be made king) he went to see her being very fond of her and as he wasnot accompanied by any of his retinue he presented her with a favourable opportunity of doing what she had long had a desire to accomplish. He asked for something to drink and whilst he was drinking, a servant of Elfrida came up behind him as he was sitting on his horse and have him a stab. Finding he was wounded he put spurs to his horse; but becoming faint by loss of blood he fell from the saddle, his foot remained in the stirrup, and he was dragged along by his unruly horse untill he expired. He was privately interred by his servants and they gave him the name of Edward the martyr. Ethelred was his successor. This prince died after an unhappy and inglorius reign of 35 years. He left two sons by his first marriage, Edmond who succeeded him, and Ednoy, who was afterwards killed by Canate. His two sons by his second marriage, Edward & Alfred, were immediately, upon Ethelred's death carried into Normandy by queen Emma. Edmond who received the name of Ironside on account of his hardy valour possessed courage & abilities capable of keeping his country from sinking under the calamities to wh. it was exposed when he came to the throneAnd found no better expedient for stopping the miseries into which it was falling but to lead his army immediately to the field and fight against the common enemy. After meeting with some good luck he made ready for deciding in one general battle, the fate of his crown. Fortune in the beginning of the day declared for him but Edrice cut off the head of one Osmer & stuck on a pole & carried it through the ranks in triumph and it being very much like Edmond cried aloud to the English, saying "Tis time to fly, for behold! the head of their king." And although Edmond took off his helmet & showed himself to them the utmost he could do was to leave the victory undecided. He fought another battle but the English were put to much slaughter & many of the nobility killed. He was ready to fight again when the Danish & English nobility equally tired of war made him come to a promise to divide the kingdom between them. It was accordingly done. And he being afterwards killed they made way for the succession of Canute the Dane to the English crown. Before he took the dominions of the English princes he summoned a general assembly of the states, in order to fix the succession of the kingdom. He sent the two sons of his predecessor to Swedon under pretence of finishing their educations but sent word to the king of that country to kill them immediately on their arrival for as they were the lawful heirs to the throne he feared they might put some obstacles in his way to the crown. The Swedish monarch was to generous to perform a request so barbarous but as he was afraid that Canute might get into a quarrel with him for protecting the young princes, he sent them to Soloman king of Hungary to be educated in his court. Edwin the eldest was afterwards married to the sister of that King and Edward was married to Agatha daughter of the Emperor Henry II and he had three children. Edgar Atheling, Margaret, who afterwards was queen of Scotland, and Christina, who went into a convent. Although Canute had reachedthe height of his ambition, in getting the English throne yet he was forced at first to make great sacrifices to it by bestowing on the principal of the nobility the most extensive governments. but afterwards he put a number of them to death. He was obliged to load the people with very heavy taxes in the commencement of his reign to make presents to his Danish followers. He made no difference between Danes and English in any point of justice and sent back to Denmark as many of his followers as he could with safety dispense with. But they were afterwards gradually incorporated with his new subjects and were as one nation. Canute having settled his authority in England beyon all danger of a revolution went into Denmark in order to resist the attacks of the king of Sweden and succeeded in the attempt. He then went into Norway & expelling the king Plaas kept possession of the kingdom untill his death. He afterwards built churches in different parts of his kingdom. And undertook a pilgrimage to Rome and staid theresome time. Canute was now become the greatest & most powerful monarch being sovereign of Denmark, Norway, and England. Also the greater part of Scotland was subject to his authority. He was almost idolized by his subjects. One of them in admiration of his grandeur, said to him one day that nothing was impossible for him. He then set his chair on the sea side as the tide rose. when the sea still advanced towards him & began to wash him with its bellows he turned to the people & observed that every creature in the world was feeble when compared to that Being alone, in whose hands were all the elements of nature, "who" said he "can say to the ocean, thus far shalt thou go, & no further, and who can level with his rod the most towering piles of human pride and ambition." -- This prince died at Shaftsburg; he left 3 sons, Sweyn, Harold, & Hardicanute. Sweyn was put in possession of Norway, Hardicanute was crowned in Denmark and Harrold was made king of England. Nothing of any importance passed during his reign which continued 4 years; he gave a bad specimen of hischaracter. his bodily accomplishments, alone are known by his appellation of Harefoot because he could run & walk so fast. He died in 1039; little regretted by his subjects and left the succession to his brother Hardicanute, whose whole reign was spent in undoing everything his predecessors had done. He plundered a number of cities & inhumanely massacred all their inhabitants. He was so enraged at Harold for depriving of his part of the kingdom that he had his body to be dug up and to be thrown into the Thames. it was found by some fishermen and buried in London. he had it thrown in a second time but it was found again and secretly interred. The violent government of Hardicanute was of short duration. He died in a state of intoxication at a large party.
Edward being at his brothers court at the time of his decease he was made king. The reign of this prince was peaceable and fortunate. The most commendable circumstance of Edwards government, was his attention to justice. he died sudenly on the 5th of January 1066, in the 65th year of his age and twenty fifth of hisreign. Harold succeeded him in his government. He had so well prepared all things before the death of Edward that he immediately stepped into the vacant throne with little opposition. It was in the reign of this prince that the decisive battle of Hastings was fought and gained by William, duke of Normandy. he being the rightful heir to the throne he made war against Harrold and having gotten entire possession of the kingdom was proclaimed king. Harrold was killed in the battle of Hastings and his body being brought to William after the battle he generously restored it to his mother, to be disposed of as she wished. The consternation & grief of the English on recovery the intelligence of this unfortunate battle in which their king was killed and most of their nobility slain was excessive. They immediately elected Edgar Atheling for their king. William marched into the kingdom & and every city, every little town, and in short the whole country almost, made submissions to him and without opposition was crowned king. Afterwards there were many insurrections ofthe people but they were generally soon defeated by the king who was always prepared to overthrow them. He died in the sixty third year of his age & twenty first of his reign. He died of a wound which he received from his horse. William the Conqueror bequeathed his kingdom to William Rafas his son. Immediately after the death of his father he hastened to make preparations for securing his government. Conspiraces were forced against the new king which seemed to be about to produce a sudden revolution. He however succeeded so well in subduing the abject Britons that he soon found himself secure enough at home to march an army against his brother Henry who was then prince of Normandy he succeeded in the attempt of getting possession of that country and returning home remained in tolerably quiet possession of his throne for some years when an accident put an end to his life & to all his ambitious projects he was killed in hunting which was the sole amusement of all the kings in those days. He was killed by an arrow. Prince Henry was hunting in the new forest with Rafas when intelligence of the death of that king was brought him and being aware of the advantages of his presence hastened to Winchester to secure the royal treasure. He met with much opposition from the keeper of the treasure but as he drew his sword & threatened him with immediate death if he oppoed his designs he forced his to acquiece in this violence. He then went to London with the money where by gaining the addresses of the number of nobility he was suddenly saluted king. all this was done in less then 5 days after his brother's death. Robert another brother of the king went to Normandy & took possession of that country. Henry hearing heard this sent an army there and conquered it.
This prince was one of the most decomplished that has filled the English throne. He paid a visit to his daughter Matilda whose husband was possesor of Normandy and staid some time. whilst he was there the Welsh made an invasion into England and whilst he was preparing to return to his throne he died verysuddenly in the 67 year of his age 35 of his reign leaving by will his daughter Matilda heir of all his dominions.
Stephen notwithstanding the will of his uncle with regard to his daughter Matilda hastened to England & was proclaimed king. There was however an insurrection in favour of Matilda and she was crowned. Stephen was sent to prison but as he was released in some short time he was again restored to his crown. The greater part of his reign was spent in civil wars. His advancement to the throne was not the means of procuring him either tranquillity nor happiness. Henry made an invasion on England & soon subduing it was proclaimed king. In the midst of these calamities Stephen seized with a violent illness and died.
No sooner had Henry II his successor seated himself on the throne than he began the establishment of justice and tranquillity, to which the kingdom had so long been a stranger & which was very successful in restoring. In the beginning ofhis reign there was nothing very interesting but about the middle of it he went to Ireland & took possession of the whole country. William king of Scotland was defeated with a good deal of his kingdom & he was taken prisoner. It was said that Henry died of Grief from the undutiful behavior of his sons all of which but one (Geoffrey) treated him very cruely & caused him much pain. The day after his death his son Richard who went to visit his dead body although his conduct towards him had been so criminal he was struck with horror at the sight & cried out that he was the murderer of his father.
Thus died in the 58th year of his age & 31 of his reign the greatest prince of his time for wisdom, virtue, & abilitites, and the most powerful in extent of dominions of any that had ever filled the English throne.
I rode on horseback this morning and then wrote my french exercise. After breakfast I got a french grammar lesson & read five of the fables on Wanostrchls recueil and then said it to Uncle Otway Barraud. I read 20 pages of Humes English history as I was in the middle of the reign of Edward I (for if I had have writen any notes upon it they would they would have been so unconnected I thought it better to wait until I began another reign) then after attending to the childrens lessons I worked until dinner after which I got geography.
Democracy one of the three forms of government. that in which the sovereign power is lodged in the body of the people.
Aristocracy. That form of government which places the supreme power in the nobles: -- Monarchy. The government of a single person, kingdom, empire. -- Despotism. Absolute power.
April 25th Having completed my ride on horseback before breakfast I wrote a french exercise, got a french grammar lesson and read two fables in Wanostrchts RecueilI read 30 pages of history and finished the reign of Edward I king of England. He died in the sixty ninth year of his age and thirty-fifth of his reign hated by his neighbors, but very much respected by his own subjects. I heard the children their lessons and worked untill dinner after which I got geography.
April 26th My before breakfast employments were exactly the same as they were yesterday morning. Immediately after breakfast I got a french reading lesson and then said it to Uncle Otway. I read my usual number of pages of history. I have been reading the reign of Edward the second. This prince ascended the throne in 1307 in the 23 year of his age. The beginning of his reign displayed nothing but weakness of mind but afterwards he became very brave and fond of war.
I heard Nanny her spelling lesson and worked until dinner and then got a geography lesson & heard Charles a lesson.
April 27th I rode on horseback, & wrote a french exercise. After breakfast I got a french grammar and reading lesson which I said to Uncle Otway. I read next 23 pages of the English history & finished the reign of Edward the second. He wasshe wanted the king to give up Baience to his son now 15 years of age & that the prince should go to Paris & do homage which every capitol bowed to his superior Lord, which the king consented to. dethroned by the artifices of the queen Isabella, after showing much reluctance to do so Isabella had not however entirely executed her wicked decisions she determined to murder the king which was done after having dethroned him & put young Edward upon the throne. This act of violence was committed in the year 1327. his reign continued 20 years.
I heard Nanny and Charles their lessons. After dinner I got geography.
April 28th The first thing I did after I got up was to ride on horseback. Then I wrote an exercise, got a french grammar lesson, and after breakfast was over got a french reading lesson, said it to Uncle O. & read my usual number of pages in history. Edward was scarcely seated on the throne when he entered on a war with Scotland which he did not success in overcoming. He had earl Mortimer and the earl of Kent executed. Edward then took the reins of government into his own hands and applied himself with industry & judgment to adjust all things which had been neglected by the late kings.
I passed, & afterwards worked. since dinner I heard Charles & Nanny their lessons & got geography.
May 1st 1820. The horses being from home this morning I walked instead of riding and wrote my exercise. After breakfast I got a reading lesson, wrote a letter & read18 pages of history. Edward III conquered Scotland twice & both times they shook off the yoke of the conqueror. This prince leaving Scotland went to France to procure his claim to the crown of that country, but finding he could do nothing without coming to an open war he determined to do so and returned to England. Having prepared himself with an army of 50,000 men he went over to france & encamped on the fields of Veronfosse but being opposed to engage against Phillips army which was a great deal larger than his he returned into Flanders and disbanded his army.
I heard Nanny a lesson & worked untill dinner then I got geography.
May 3rd As there was company in the house yesterday I only had time to get my french. This morning I walked before breakfast after which I wrote an exercise, got a grammar lesson & reading lesson in french. I read history as usual. Edward as was before mentioned went into Flanders but as he was not to be discouraged by first difficulties of an undertaking. He returned to Sluise and there he fought a naval battle (1340) and was victorious. 230 french ships were taken, 30,000 men killed & two of their admirals.
I read nanny her lesson & recreated myself untill dinner then I got geography.
May 15th Although I have not written my journal for the last week I have attended to my french regularly and a part of the time history. This morning I rose a little after the sun and took a ride on horseback. Then I got a french grammar lesson. After breakfast I wrote an exercise, read in the recuel, I read my usual number of pages in history. After the Naval battle of Sluise The English and French agreed on a truce of two or three years after which the war broke out again with new vigour in the beginning the English were almost constantly victorious. The besieged and took many cities one of which was Calais. I heard Charles a lesson & worked until dinner after which I got geography.
May 16th This morning I rode, and got a french reading lesson, before breakfast after which I finished my other french lessons said them to Aunt Mary Barraud & read 20 pages of history. I read the continuation of the war with France in which the English latterly overcame the French and took their king prisoner but he escaped.
I read French again to Uncle John, heard the children their lessons & worked untill dinner after then I got geography.
May 17th I rode, & got a french reading & grammar lesson before breakfast after which I wrote an exercise said my french, & read 20 pages of Humes England. Edward III died in the 64th year of his age & 51st of his reign leaving a character illustriousfor every virtue. His valour & military talents formed the smallest part of his merit. I heard Charles and Nanny a lesson each worked untill dinner In the evening I got geography & I passed a little.
May 18th Having taken my ride I got my usual before breakfast lessons after which I wrote an exercise, & read 16 pages in the history of England. I read no more because I finished the second volume . It was the reign of Edward III that the manufacture of wool was introduced into England in the thirteenth century. He encouraged foreign weavers to come over to his kingdom and passed an act forbidding everyone to wear any cloth but of English fabric. I heard Nanny her lesson but she said it very badly. After dinner I got a geography lesson.
May 19th Friday. I rose by sun rise, took a little turn around the circle on horse back and got my french lessons. Immediately after breakfast I wrote an exercise & read history. As I began a reign to day I met with nothing notable. I heard Nanny a part of her lesson before dinner which she finished afterwards. I got my usual evening lesson.
May 22nd I rose early & took a walk. I then got over the french lessons which I omitted to say on Saturday. After breakfast I read as usual. Scarcely was Richard II seated on the thronethan Insurrections of the common people & descendants of the barrons began to break out in different parts of the kingdom, the former committed many murders amoung the nobility but did no considerable mischief in the country as they were soon repulsed by Richard who obliged them to return peaceably to their respective habitations.
I attempted to hear Nanny her spelling lesson but she would not. I worked untill dinner after which I read french to Uncle John Barraud & worked again.
May 23rd I took a very long walk before breakfast after which I attended to my french and read history. Richard began his reign in 1377 & twenty two years after he was deposed in parliament for his pretended tyranny & misconduct and after being imprisoned & shamefully treated was murdered in 1399. This prince was weak, & unfit for government. He was violent in his temper, very extravagant & fond of show & magnificence. He was thirty four when he was killed and left no children.
I said my french lesson & worked until dinner after which I took a ride.
May 24th I took Exercise untill near breakfast after which I got my french and read history. I commenced the reign of Henry the fourth & met with nothing very entertaining. I worked and said french after dinner I got geography.
May 25th This morning early I re-commenced my riding exercises which I had discontinued for two or three days: I got a lesson in the receail & got a grammar lesson. After breakfast I wrote an exercise, recited my french to Uncle Otway Barraud and read history. Henry the fourth died in 1413 after a reign of 13 years in which time few events occurred that deserve to be transmitted to posterity. He was so much occupied in defending his crown (for he was an usurper) that he had little time to look abroad or perform any action which might signalize him or be of advantage to the nation. He died at the early age of 46 and left four sons and two daughters.
I heard Charles a lesson and worked until dinner -- Then committed a geography lesson to memory. L.B. Cocke.
May 30th I have discontinued my studies for several days on account of my going from home & I did not return untill yesterday. Today I resumed them and employed myself before breakfast as usual by attending to my french. Immediately after breakfast I wrote a french exercise and read 20 pages of history. Henry V (whose reign I began to read today) ascended to the throne in the year 1413 and two years after the French were invadedby him and after laying waste the country all disputes for the present were ended by a decisive victory gained by the English at Agincour.
I said a french lesson to Uncle Otway Barraud heard Nanny and Charles their lessons recreated my self until dinner & then got geography.
May 31st The bad weather this morning & which has continued throughout the day prevented my taking a ride before breakfast as well as any other exercise since. I attended to my French after breakfast & read 18 pages. I finished the reign of Henry the fifth. His glory when it had nearly reached the summit was cut short by the hand of death in the year 1422 in the 34 year of his age & the 10 of his reign leaving a character eminent for many virtues and unstained by any considerable blemish his abilities appeared equally in the cabinet and in the field.
Said french, & worked until dinner. Nanny refused to say her lesson. After dinner heard Charles a lesson & got geography.
Thursday June 1st I took a walk and got a french recueil lesson wrote an exercise and read over some of the grammar. I recited my lessons to Uncle Otmayand read 28 pages of history. Henry VI ascended the throne in 1422 and a twelve month after he took upon himself the conclusion of the war with the french which his father left unsettled. He fought the battle of Vermeil and was victorious. He then laid siege to Orleans and reduced the inhabitants to the greatest extremities and then it was that the illustrious maid of Orleans distinguished herself so much. I did not finish the siege of Orleans or the celebrated actions of the maid.
I heard Nanny her lessons & worked until dinner after which I got geography and & heard Cary a lesson. L.B. Cocke.
June 2nd The weather prevented me from taking any exercise. I got my french lessons after breakfast and read history. The English were not very successful at the siege of Orleans but by the injustice & inhumanity of the duke of Bedford the maid of Orleans was put to death. He pretended that she was taken within the bounds of his diocese. The University of Paris was mean enough to join in the request of having her tried by the court for sorcery, impiety, idolatry, and magic. After being condemned to death her sentence was mitigated and she was to be perpetually imprisoned and to be fed during life on bread and water. She was made to consent to wearfemale clothes and took an oath never to wear any others. Her enemies wishing to get her into some scrape placed a suit of men's apparel in her appartment and concealing themselves they saw her put them on and whilst she was thus equiped they rushed upon her. No pardon could be granted her, she was sentenced to be burnt in the market place of RaŸen and it was accordingly executed.
I worked & said my french lesson. After dinner I heard the children their lessons and got geography.
June 5th 1820 This morning I rode and then got my french. After breakfast I read 20 pages in Humes History of England. The English army after remaining in France such a length of time was so entirely Routed that they had to conclude a truce after which they renewed the war. Being very unsuccessful in every attempt they made the french treated very barbarously and expelled them the kingdom.
I worked untill dinner; then I heard Cary a lesson. I attempted to hear Nanny hers but she said it so badly that it did her no good I am sure. I devoted a portion of the evening to studying geography.