The Young Tsar by Leo Tolstoy
THE young Tsar had just ascended the throne. For five weeks he had
worked without ceasing, in the way that Tsars are accustomed to work.
He had been attending to reports, signing papers, re- ceiving
ambassadors and high officials who came to be presented to him, and
reviewing troops. He was tired, and as a traveller exhausted by heat
and thirst longs for a draught of water and for rest, so he longed for
a respite of just one day at least from receptions, from speeches, from
parades--a few free hours to spend like an ordi- nary human being with
his young, clever, and beautiful wife, to whom he had been married only
a month before.
It was Christmas Eve. The young Tsar had arranged to have a
complete rest that evening. The night before he had worked till very
late at documents which his ministers of state had left for him to
examine. In the morning he was present at the Te Deum, and then at a
military service. In the afternoon he received official visitors; and
later he had been obliged to listen to the reports of three ministers
of state, and had given his assent to many important matters. In his
conference with the Minister of Finance he had agreed to an increase of
duties on imported goods, which should in the future add many mil-
lions to the State revenues. Then he sanctioned the sale of brandy by
the Crown in various parts of the country, and signed a decree
permitting the sale of alcohol in villages having markets. This was
also calculated to increase the principal revenue to the State, which
was derived from the sale of spirits. He had also approved of the
issuing of a new gold loan required for a financial negotiation. The
Minister of justice having re- ported on the complicated case of the
succession of the Baron Snyders, the young Tsar confirmed the decision
by his signature; and also approved the new rules relating to the
application of Arti- cle 1830 of the penal code, providing for the pun-
ishment of tramps. In his conference with the Minister of the Interior
he ratified the order con- cerning the collection of taxes in arrears,
signed the order settling what measures should be taken in regard to
the persecution of religious dissenters, and also one providing for the
continuance of martial law in those provinces where it had al- ready
been established. With the Minister of War he arranged for the
nomination of a new Corps Commander for the raising of recruits, and
for punishment of breach of discipline. These things kept him occupied
till dinner-time, and even then his freedom was not complete. A number
of high officials had been invited to dinner, and he was obliged to
talk to them: not in the way he felt disposed to do, but according to
what he was expected to say. At last the tiresome dinner was over, and
the guests departed.
The young Tsar heaved a sigh of relief, stretched himself and
retired to his apartments to take off his uniform with the decorations
on it, and to don the jacket he used to wear before his accession to
the throne. His young wife had also retired to take off her
dinner-dress, remarking that she would join him presently.
When he had passed the row of footmen who were standing erect
before him, and reached his room; when he had thrown off his heavy
uniform and put on his jacket, the young Tsar felt glad to be free from
work; and his heart was filled with a tender emotion which sprang from
the conscious- ness of his freedom, of his joyous, robust young life,
and of his love. He threw himself on the sofa, stretched out his legs
upon it, leaned his head on his hand, fixed his gaze on the dull glass
shade of the lamp, and then a sensation which he had not experienced
since his childhood,--the pleasure of going to sleep, and a drowsiness
that was irresist- ible--suddenly came over him.
"My wife will be here presently and will find me asleep. No, I
must not go to sleep," he thought. He let his elbow drop down, laid
his cheek in the palm of his hand, made himself com- fortable, and was
so utterly happy that he only felt a desire not to be aroused from this
delight- ful state.
And then what happens to all of us every day happened to him--he
fell asleep without know- ing himself when or how. He passed from one
state into another without his will having any share in it, without
even desiring it, and without regretting the state out of which he had
passed. He fell into a heavy sleep which was like death. How long he
had slept he did not know, but he was suddenly aroused by the soft
touch of a hand upon his shoulder.
"It is my darling, it is she," he thought. "What a shame to have
But it was not she. Before his eyes, which were wide open and
blinking at the light, she, that charming and beautiful creature whom
he was expecting, did not stand, but HE stood. Who HE was the young
Tsar did not know, but somehow it did not strike him that he was a
stranger whom he had never seen before. It seemed as if he had known
him for a long time and was fond of him, and as if he trusted him as he
would trust himself. He had expected his beloved wife, but in her
stead that man whom he had never seen before had come. Yet to the
young Tsar, who was far from feeling regret or astonishment, it seemed
not only a most natural, but also a neces- sary thing to happen.
"Come!" said the stranger.
"Yes, let us go," said the young Tsar, not knowing where he was to
go, but quite aware that he could not help submitting to the com- mand
of the stranger. "But how shall we go?" he asked.
"In this way."
The stranger laid his hand on the Tsar's head, and the Tsar for a
moment lost consciousness. He could not tell whether he had been
uncon- scious a long or a short time, but when he re- covered his
senses he found himself in a strange place. The first thing he was
aware of was a strong and stifling smell of sewage. The place in which
he stood was a broad passage lit by the red glow of two dim lamps.
Running along one side of the passage was a thick wall with windows
protected by iron gratings. On the other side were doors secured with
locks. In the passage stood a soldier, leaning up against the wall,
asleep. Through the doors the young Tsar heard the muffled sound of
living human beings: not of one alone, but of many. HE was standing
at the side of the young Tsar, and pressing his shoulder slightly with
his soft hand, pushed him to the first door, unmindful of the sentry.
The young Tsar felt he could not do otherwise than yield, and
approached the door. To his amazement the sentry looked straight at
him, evidently with- out seeing him, as he neither straightened himself
up nor saluted, but yawned loudly and, lifting his hand, scratched the
back of his neck. The door had a small hole, and in obedience to the
pressure of the hand that pushed him, the young Tsar approached a step
nearer and put his eye to the small opening. Close to the door, the
foul smell that stifled him was stronger, and the young Tsar hesitated
to go nearer, but the hand pushed him on. He leaned forward, put his
eye close to the opening, and suddenly ceased to perceive the odour.
The sight he saw deadened his sense of smell. In a large room, about
ten yards long and six yards wide, there walked unceasingly from one
end to the other, six men in long grey coats, some in felt boots, some
barefoot. There were over twenty men in all in the room, but in that
first moment the young Tsar only saw those who were walking with quick,
even, silent steps. It was a horrid sight to watch the con- tinual,
quick, aimless movements of the men who passed and overtook each other,
turning sharply when they reached the wall, never looking at one
another, and evidently concentrated each on his own thoughts. The
young Tsar had observed a similar sight one day when he was watching a
tiger in a menagerie pacing rapidly with noiseless tread from one end
of his cage to the other, waving its tail, silently turning when it
reached the bars, and looking at nobody. Of these men one, appar-
ently a young peasant, with curly hair, would have been handsome were
it not for the unnatural pallor of his face, and the concentrated,
wicked, scarcely human, look in his eyes. Another was a Jew, hairy and
gloomy. The third was a lean old man, bald, with a beard that had been
shaven and had since grown like bristles. The fourth was
extraordinarily heavily built, with well-developed muscles, a low
receding forehead and a flat nose. The fifth was hardly more than a
boy, long, thin, obviously consumptive. The sixth was small and dark,
with nervous, convulsive move- ments. He walked as if he were
skipping, and muttered continuously to himself. They were all walking
rapidly backwards and forwards past the hole through which the young
Tsar was look- ing. He watched their faces and their gait with keen
interest. Having examined them closely, he presently became aware of a
number of other men at the back of the room, standing round, or lying
on the shelf that served as a bed. Standing close to the door he also
saw the pail which caused such an unbearable stench. On the shelf
about ten men, entirely covered with their cloaks, were sleeping. A
red-haired man with a huge beard was sitting sideways on the shelf,
with his shirt off. He was examining it, lifting it up to the light,
and evidently catching the vermin on it. Another man, aged and white
as snow, stood with his profile turned towards the door. He was
praying, crossing himself, and bowing low, ap- parently so absorbed in
his devotions as to be oblivious of all around him.
"I see--this is a prison," thought the young Tsar. "They certainly
deserve pity. It is a dreadful life. But it cannot be helped. It is
their own fault."
But this thought had hardly come into his head before HE, who was
his guide, replied to it.
"They are all here under lock and key by your order. They have all
been sentenced in your name. But far from meriting their present con-
dition which is due to your human judgment, the greater part of them
are far better than you or those who were their judges and who keep
them here. This one"--he pointed to the handsome, curly-headed
fellow--"is a murderer. I do not consider him more guilty than those
who kill in war or in duelling, and are rewarded for their deeds. He
had neither education nor moral guidance, and his life had been cast
among thieves and drunkards. This lessens his guilt, but he has done
wrong, nevertheless, in being a murderer. He killed a merchant, to rob
him. The other man, the Jew, is a thief, one of a gang of thieves.
That uncommonly strong fellow is a horse-stealer, and guilty also, but
compared with others not as culpable. Look!"--and suddenly the young
Tsar found himself in an open field on a vast frontier. On the right
were potato fields; the plants had been rooted out, and were lying in
heaps, blackened by the frost; in alternate streaks were rows of winter
corn. In the distance a little village with its tiled roofs was
visible; on the left were fields of winter corn, and fields of stubble.
No one was to be seen on any side, save a black human figure in front
at the border-line, a gun slung on his back, and at his feet a dog. On
the spot where the young Tsar stood, sitting beside him, almost at his
feet, was a young Russian soldier with a green band on his cap, and
with his rifle slung over his shoulders, who was rolling up a paper to
make a cigarette. The soldier was obviously unaware of the presence of
the young Tsar and his companion, and had not heard them. He did now
turn round when the Tsar, who was standing directly over the soldier,
asked, "Where are we?" "On the Prussian frontier," his guide answered.
Suddenly, far away in front of them, a shot was fired. The soldier
jumped to his feet, and seeing two men running, bent low to the ground,
hastily put his tobacco into his pocket, and ran after one of them.
"Stop, or I'll shoot!" cried the soldier. The fugitive, without
stopping, turned his head and called out something evidently abusive or
"Damn you!" shouted the soldier, who put one foot a little forward
and stopped, after which, bending his head over his rifle, and raising
his right hand, he rapidly adjusted something, took aim, and, pointing
the gun in the direction of the fugitive, probably fired, although no
sound was heard. "Smokeless powder, no doubt," thought the young Tsar,
and looking after the fleeing man saw him take a few hurried steps, and
bending lower and lower, fall to the ground and crawl on his hands and
knees. At last he remained lying and did not move. The other
fugitive, who was ahead of him, turned round and ran back to the man
who was lying on the ground. He did something for him and then resumed
"What does all this mean? " asked the Tsar.
"These are the guards on the frontier, enforc- ing the revenue
laws. That man was killed to protect the revenues of the State."
"Has he actually been killed? "
The guide again laid his hand upon the head of the young Tsar, and
again the Tsar lost conscious- ness. When he had recovered his senses
he found himself in a small room--the customs office. The dead body of
a man, with a thin grizzled beard, an aquiline nose, and big eyes with
the eyelids closed, was lying on the floor. His arms were thrown
asunder, his feet bare, and his thick, dirty toes were turned up at
right angles and stuck out straight. He had a wound in his side, and
on his ragged cloth jacket, as well as on his blue shirt, were stains
of clotted blood, which had turned black save for a few red spots here
and there. A woman stood close to the wall, so wrapped up in shawls
that her face could scarcely be seen. Motionless she gazed at the
aquiline nose, the upturned feet, and the protruding eye- balls;
sobbing and sighing, and drying her tears at long, regular intervals.
A pretty girl of thirteen was standing at her mother's side, with her
eyes and mouth wide open. A boy of eight clung to his mother's skirt,
and looked intensely at his dead father without blinking.
From a door near them an official, an officer, a doctor, and a
clerk with documents, entered. After them came a soldier, the one who
had shot the man. He stepped briskly along behind his superiors, but
the instant he saw the corpse he went suddenly pale, and quivered; and
dropping his head stood still. When the official asked him whether
that was the man who was escaping across the frontier, and at whom he
had fired, he was unable to answer. His lips trembled, and his face
twitched. "The s--s--s--" he began, but could not get out the words
which he wanted to say. "The same, your excellency." The of- ficials
looked at each other and wrote something down.
"You see the beneficial results of that same system!"
In a room of sumptuous vulgarity two men sat drinking wine. One of
them was old and grey, the other a young Jew. The young Jew was
holding a roll of bank-notes in his hand, and was bargaining with the
old man. He was buying smuggled goods.
"You've got 'em cheap," he said, smiling.
"Yes--but the risk--"
"This is indeed terrible," said the young Tsar; but it cannot be
avoided. Such proceedings are necessary."
His companion made no response, saying merely, "Let us move on,"
and laid his hand again on the head of the Tsar. When the Tsar
recovered consciousness, he was standing in a small room lit by a
shaded lamp. A woman was sitting at the table sewing. A boy of eight
was bending over the table, drawing, with his feet doubled up under him
in the armchair. A stu- dent was reading aloud. The father and daugh-
ter of the family entered the room noisily.
"You signed the order concerning the sale of spirits," said the
guide to the Tsar.
"Well?" said the woman.
"He's not likely to live."
"What's the matter with him?"
"They've kept him drunk all the time."
"It's not possible!" exclaimed the wife.
"It's true. And the boy's only nine years old, that Vania
"What did you do to try to save him?" asked the wife.
"I tried everything that could be done. I gave him an emetic and
put a mustard-plaster on him. He has every symptom of delirium
"It's no wonder--the whole family are drunk- ards. Annisia is only
a little better than the rest, and even she is generally more or less
drunk," said the daughter.
"And what about your temperance society?" the student asked his
"What can we do when they are given every opportunity of drinking?
Father tried to have the public-house shut up, but the law is against
him. And, besides, when I was trying to convince Vasily Ermiline that
it was disgraceful to keep a public-house and ruin the people with
drink, he answered very haughtily, and indeed got the better of me
before the crowd: 'But I have a license with the Imperial eagle on it.
If there was anything wrong in my business, the Tsar wouldn't have
issued a decree authorising it.' Isn't it terrible? The whole village
has been drunk for the last three days. And as for feast- days, it is
simply horrible to think of! It has been proved conclusively that
alcohol does no good in any case, but invariably does harm, and it has
been demonstrated to be an absolute poison. Then, ninety-nine per
cent. of the crimes in the world are committed through its influence.
We all know how the standard of morality and the general welfare
improved at once in all the coun- tries where drinking has been
suppressed--like Sweden and Finland, and we know that it can be
suppressed by exercising a moral influence over the masses. But in our
country the class which could exert that influence--the Government, the
Tsar and his officials--simply encourage drink. Their main revenues
are drawn from the continual drunkenness of the people. They drink
them- selves--they are always drinking the health of somebody:
'Gentlemen, the Regiment!' The preachers drink, the bishops drink--"
Again the guide touched the head of the young Tsar, who again lost
consciousness. This time he found himself in a peasant's cottage. The
peas- ant--a man of forty, with red face and blood- shot eyes--was
furiously striking the face of an old man, who tried in vain to protect
himself from the blows. The younger peasant seized the beard of the
old man and held it fast.
"For shame! To strike your father--!"
"I don't care, I'll kill him! Let them send me to Siberia, I don't
The women were screaming. Drunken officials rushed into the
cottage and separated father and son. The father had an arm broken and
the son's beard was torn out. In the doorway a drunken girl was making
violent love to an old besotted peasant.
"They are beasts!" said the young Tsar.
Another touch of his guide's hand and the young Tsar awoke in a new
place. It was the office of the justice of the peace. A fat, bald-
headed man, with a double chin and a chain round his neck, had just
risen from his seat, and was reading the sentence in a loud voice,
while a crowd of peasants stood behind the grating. There was a woman
in rags in the crowd who did not rise. The guard gave her a push.
"Asleep! I tell you to stand up!" The woman rose.
"According to the decree of his Imperial Majesty--" the judge began
reading the sen- tence. The case concerned that very woman. She had
taken away half a bundle of oats as she was passing the thrashing-floor
of a landowner. The justice of the peace sentenced her to two months'
imprisonment. The landowner whose oats had been stolen was among the
audi- ence. When the judge adjourned the court the landowner
approached, and shook hands, and the judge entered into conversation
with him. The next case was about a stolen samovar. Then there was a
trial about some timber which had been cut, to the detriment of the
landowner. Some peasants were being tried for having as- saulted the
constable of the district.
When the young Tsar again lost consciousness, he awoke to find
himself in the middle of a vil- lage, where he saw hungry, half-frozen
children and the wife of the man who had assaulted the constable broken
down from overwork.
Then came a new scene. In Siberia, a tramp is being flogged with
the lash, the direct result of an order issued by the Minister of
justice. Again oblivion, and another scene. The family of a Jewish
watchmaker is evicted for being too poor. The children are crying, and
the Jew, Isaaks, is greatly distressed. At last they come to an ar-
rangement, and he is allowed to stay on in the lodgings.
The chief of police takes a bribe. The gov- ernor of the province
also secretly accepts a bribe. Taxes are being collected. In the
village, while a cow is sold for payment, the police inspector is
bribed by a factory owner, who thus escapes taxes altogether. And
again a village court scene, and a sentence carried into execution--the
"Ilia Vasilievich, could you not spare me that?"
The peasant burst into tears. "Well, of course, Christ suffered,
and He bids us suffer too."
Then other scenes. The Stundists--a sect --being broken up and
dispersed; the clergy re- fusing first to marry, then to bury a
Protestant. Orders given concerning the passage of the Im- perial
railway train. Soldiers kept sitting in the mud--cold, hungry, and
cursing. Decrees is- sued relating to the educational institutions of
the Empress Mary Department. Corruption ram- pant in the foundling
homes. An undeserved monument. Thieving among the clergy. The
reinforcement of the political police. A woman being searched. A
prison for convicts who are sentenced to be deported. A man being
hanged for murdering a shop assistant.
Then the result of military discipline: soldiers wearing uniform
and scoffing at it. A gipsy en- campment. The son of a millionaire
exempted from military duty, while the only support of a large family
is forced to serve. The university: a teacher relieved of military
service, while the most gifted musicians are compelled to perform it.
Soldiers and their debauchery--and the spreading of disease.
Then a soldier who has made an attempt to desert. He is being
tried. Another is on trial for striking an officer who has insulted
his mother. He is put to death. Others, again, are tried for having
refused to shoot. The runaway soldier sent to a disciplinary battalion
and flogged to death. Another, who is guiltless, flogged, and his
wounds sprinkled with salt till he dies. One of the superior officers
stealing money belonging to the soldiers. Nothing but drunkenness, de-
bauchery, gambling, and arrogance on the part of the authorities.
What is the general condition of the people: the children are
half-starving and degenerate; the houses are full of vermin; an
everlasting dull round of labour, of submission, and of sadness. On
the other hand: ministers, governors of prov- inces, covetous,
ambitious, full of vanity, and anxious to inspire fear.
"But where are men with human feelings?"
"I will show you where they are."
Here is the cell of a woman in solitary confine- ment at
Schlusselburg. She is going mad. Here is another woman--a
girl--indisposed, violated by soldiers. A man in exile, alone,
embittered, half-dead. A prison for convicts condemned to hard labour,
and women flogged. They are many.
Tens of thousands of the best people. Some shut up in prisons,
others ruined by false educa- tion, by the vain desire to bring them up
as we wish. But not succeeding in this, whatever might have been is
ruined as well, for it is made impos- sible. It is as if we were
trying to make buck- wheat out of corn sprouts by splitting the ears.
One may spoil the corn, but one could never change it to buckwheat.
Thus all the youth of the world, the entire younger generation, is
But woe to those who destroy one of these little ones, woe to you
if you destroy even one of them. On your soul, however, are hosts of
them, who have been ruined in your name, all of those over whom your
"But what can I do?" exclaimed the Tsar in despair. "I do not wish
to torture, to flog, to corrupt, to kill any one! I only want the
welfare of all. Just as I yearn for happiness myself, so I want the
world to be happy as well. Am I actu- ally responsible for everything
that is done in my name? What can I do? What am I to do to rid myself
of such a responsibility? What can I do? I do not admit that the
responsibility for all this is mine. If I felt myself responsible for
one- hundredth part of it, I would shoot myself on the spot. It would
not be possible to live if that were true. But how can I put an end,
to all this evil? It is bound up with the very existence of the State.
I am the head of the State! What am I to do? Kill myself? Or abdicate?
But that would mean renouncing my duty. O God, O God, God, help me!" He
burst into tears and awoke.
"How glad I am that it was only a dream," was his first thought.
But when he began to recollect what he had seen in his dream, and to
compare it with actuality, he realised that the problem propounded to
him in dream remained just as important and as insoluble now that he
was awake. For the first time the young Tsar became aware of the heavy
responsibility weighing on him, and was aghast. His thoughts no longer
turned to the young Queen and to the happiness he had anticipated for
that evening, but became centred on the unanswerable question which
hung over him: "What was to be done?"
In a state of great agitation he arose and went into the next room.
An old courtier, a co-worker and friend of his father's, was standing
there in the middle of the room in conversation with the young Queen,
who was on her way to join her husband. The young Tsar approached
them, and addressing his conversation principally to the old courtier,
told him what he had seen in his dream and what doubts the dream had
left in his mind.
"That is a noble idea. It proves the rare nobility of your
spirit," said the old man. "But forgive me for speaking frankly--you
are too kind to be an emperor, and you exaggerate your responsibility.
In the first place, the state of things is not as you imagine it to
be. The people are not poor. They are well-to-do. Those who are poor
are poor through their own fault. Only the guilty are punished, and if
an unavoidable mistake does sometimes occur, it is like a thunder-
bolt--an accident, or the will of God. You have but one
responsibility: to fulfil your task coura- geously and to retain the
power that is given to you. You wish the best for your people and God
sees that. As for the errors which you have com- mitted unwittingly,
you can pray for forgiveness, and God will guide you and pardon you.
All the more because you have done nothing that demands forgiveness,
and there never have been and never will be men possessed of such
extraordinary qual- ities as you and your father. Therefore all we
implore you to do is to live, and to reward our endless devotion and
love with your favour, and every one, save scoundrels who deserve no
happi- ness, will be happy."
"What do you think about that?" the young Tsar asked his wife.
"I have a different opinion," said the clever young woman, who had
been brought up in a free country. "I am glad you had that dream, and
I agree with you that there are grave responsibili- ties resting upon
you. I have often thought about it with great anxiety, and I think
there is a simple means of casting off a part of the responsibility you
are unable to bear, if not all of it. A large proportion of the power
which is too heavy for you, you should delegate to the people, to its
representatives, reserving for yourself only the supreme control, that
is, the general direction of the affairs of State."
The Queen had hardly ceased to expound her views, when the old
courtier began eagerly to refute her arguments, and they started a
polite but very heated discussion.
For a time the young Tsar followed their argu- ments, but presently
he ceased to be aware of what they said, listening only to the voice of
him who had been his guide in the dream, and who was now speaking
audibly in his heart.
"You are not only the Tsar," said the voice, "but more. You are a
human being, who only yesterday came into this world, and will
perchance to-morrow depart out of it. Apart from your duties as a
Tsar, of which that old man is now speaking, you have more immediate
duties not by any means to be disregarded; human duties, not the duties
of a Tsar towards his subjects, which are only accidental, but an
eternal duty, the duty of a man in his relation to God, the duty toward
your own soul, which is to save it, and also, to serve God in
establishing his kingdom on earth. You are not to be guarded in your
actions either by what has been or what will be, but only by what it is
your own duty to do.
He opened his eyes--his wife was awakening him. Which of the three
courses the young Tsar chose, will be told in fifty years.