An Illusion in Red and White
by Stephen Crane
Nights on the Cuban blockade were long, at times exciting, often
dull. The men on the small leaping dispatch-boats became as intimate
as if they had all been buried in the same coffin.
Correspondents, who in New York, had passed as fairly good fellows
sometimes turned out to be perfect rogues of vanity and selfishness,
but still more often the conceited chumps of Park Row became the
kindly and thoughtful men of the Cuban blockade. Also each
correspondent told all he knew, and sometimes more. For this gentle
tale I am indebted to one of the brightening stars of New York
"Now, this is how I imagine it happened. I don't say it happened
this way, but this is how I imagine it happened. And it always struck
me as being a very interesting story. I hadn't been on the paper very
long, but just about long enough to get a good show, when the city
editor suddenly gave me this sparkling murder assignment.
"It seems that up in one of the back counties of New York State a
farmer had taken a dislike to his wife; and so he went into the
kitchen with an axe, and in the presence of their four little children
he just casually rapped his wife on the nape of the neck with the head
of this axe. It was early in the morning, but he told the children
they had better go to bed. Then he took his wife's body out in the
woods and buried it.
"This farmer's name was Jones. The widower's eldest child was named
Freddy. A week after the murder, one of the long-distance neighbours
was rattling past the house in his buckboard when he saw Freddy
playing in the road. He pulled up, and asked the boy about the welfare
of the Jones family.
" 'Oh, we're all right,' said Freddy, 'only ma—she ain't she's
" 'Why, when did she die?' cried the startled farmer. 'What did she
" 'Oh,' answered Freddy. 'last week a man with red hair and big
white teeth and real white hands came into the kitchen, and killed ma
with an axe.
"The farmer was indignant with the boy for telling him this strange
childish nonsense, and drove off much disgruntled. But he recited the
incident at a tavern that evening, and when people began to miss the
familiar figure of Mrs. Jones at the Methodist Church on Sunday
mornings, they ended by having an investigation. The calm Jones was
arrested for murder, and his wife's body was lifted from its grave in
the woods and buried by her own family.
"The chief interest now centred upon the children. All four
declared that they were in the kitchen at the time of the crime, and
that the murderer had red hair. The hair of the virtuous Jones was
grey. They said that the murderer's teeth were large and white. Jones
only had about eight teeth, and these were small and brown. They said
the murderer's hands were white. Jones's hands were the colour of
black walnuts. They lifted their dazed, innocent faces, and crying,
simply because the mysterious excitement and their new quarters
frightened them, they repeated their heroic legend without important
deviation, and without the parroty sameness which would excite
"Women came to the jail and wept over them, and made little frocks
for the girls, and little breeches for the boys, and idiotic
detectives questioned them at length. Always they upheld the theory of
the murderer with red hair, big white teeth, and white hands. Jones sat
in his cell, his chin sullenly on his first vest button. He knew
nothing about any murder, he said. He thought his wife had gone on a
visit to some relatives. He had had a quarrel with her, and she had
said that she was going to leave him for a time, so that he might have
proper opportunities for cooling down. Had he seen the blood on the
floor? Yes, he had seen the blood on the floor. But he had been
cleaning and skinning a rabbit at that spot on the day of his wife's
disappearance. He had thought nothing of it. What had his children
said when he returned from the fields? They had told him that their
mother had been killed by an axe in the hands of a man with red hair,
big white teeth, and white hands. To questions as to why he had not
informed the police of the county, he answered that he had not thought
it a matter of sufficient importance. He had cordially hated his wife,
anyhow, and he was glad to be rid of her. He decided afterward that she
had run off, and he had never credited the fantastic tale of the
"Of course, there was very little doubt in the minds of the
majority that Jones was guilty, but there was a fairly strong
following who insisted that Jones was a coarse and brutal man, and
perhaps weak in his head— yes—but not a murderer. They pointed to
the children and declared that children could never lie, and these
kids, when asked, said that the murder had been committed by a man
with red hair, large white teeth, and white hands. I myself had a
number of interviews with the children, and I was amazed at the
convincing power of their little story.
Shining in the depths of the limpid up-turned eyes, one could
fairly see tiny mirrored images of men with red hair, big white teeth,
and white hands.
"Now, I'll tell you how it happened—how I imagine it was done.
Some time after burying his wife in the woods Jones strolled back into
the house. Seeing nobody, he called out in the familiar fashion,
'Mother!' Then the kids came out whimpering. 'Where is your mother?'
said Jones. The children looked at him blankly. 'Why, pa;' said
Freddy, 'you came in here, and hit ma with the axe; and then you sent
us to bed.' 'Me?' cried Jones. 'I haven't been near the house since
"The children did not know how to reply. Their meagre little sense
informed them that their father had been the man with the axe, but he
denied it, and to their minds everything was a mere great puzzle with
no meaning whatever, save that it was mysteriously sad and made them
" 'What kind of a looking man was it?' said Jones.
"Freddy hesitated. 'Now—he looked a good deal like you, pa.'
" 'Like me?' said Jones. 'Why, I thought you said he had red hair?'
" 'No, I didn't: replied Freddy. 'I thought he had grey hair, like
" 'Well; said Jones, 'I saw a man with kind of red hair going along
the road up yonder, and I thought maybe that might have been him.'
"Little Lucy, the second child, here piped up with intense
conviction. 'His hair was a little teeny bit red. I saw it.'
" 'No,' said Jones. 'The man I saw had very red hair. And what did
his teeth look like? Were they big and white?'
"'Yes,' answered Lucy, 'they were.'
"Even Freddy seemed to incline to think it.
" 'His teeth may have been big and white.'
"Jones said little more at that time. Later he intimated to the
children that their mother had gone off on a visit, and although they
were full of wonder, and sometimes wept because of the oppression of
an incomprehensible feeling in the air, they said nothing. Jones did
Everything was smooth.
"The morning after the day of the murder, Jones and his children
had a breakfast of hominy and milk.."
'Well, this man with red hair and big white teeth, Lucy,' said
Jones. 'Did you notice anything else about him?'
"Lucy straightened in her chair, and showed the childish desire to
come out with brilliant information which would gain her father's
approval. 'He had white hands—hands all white—'
" 'How about you, Freddy?'
" 'I didn't look at them much, but I think they were white,'
answered the boy.
" 'And what did little Martha notice?' cried the tender parent.
'Did she see the big bad man?'
"Martha, aged four, replied solemnly, 'His hair was all red, and
his hand was white—all white.'
" 'That's the man I saw up the road,' said Jones to Freddy.
" 'Yes, sir, it seems like it must have been him,' said the boy,
his brain now completely muddled.
"Again Jones allowed the subject of his wife's murder to lapse. The
children did not know that it was a murder, of course. Adults were
always performing in a way to make children's heads swim. For
instance, what could be more incomprehensible than that a man with two
horses, dragging a queer thing, should walk all day, making the grass
turn down and the earth turn up?p
And why did they cut the long grass and put it in a barn? And what
was a cow for? Did the water in the well like to be there? All these
actions and things were grand, because they were associated with the
high estate of grown-up people, but they were deeply mysterious. If,
then, a man with red hair, big white teeth, and white hands should hit
their mother on the nape of the neck with an axe, it was merely a
phenomenon 0f grownup life. Little Henry, the baby, when he had a
want, howled and pounded the table with his spoon. That was all of life
to him. He was not concerned with the fact that his mother had been
"One day Jones said to his children suddenly, 'Look here: I wonder
if you could have made a mistake. Are you absolutely sure that the man
you saw had red hair, big white teeth, and white hands?'
"The children were indignant with their father. 'Why, of course,
pa, we ain't made no mistake. We saw him as plain as day.'
"Later young Freddy's mind began to work like ketchup. His nights
were haunted with terrible memories of the man with the red hair, big
white teeth, and white hands, and the prolonged absence of his mother
made him wonder and wonder. Presently he quite gratuitously developed
the theory that his mother was dead. He knew about death. He had once
seen a dead dog; also dead chickens, rabbits, and mice. One day he
asked his father, 'Pa, is ma ever coming back?'
"Jones said: 'Well, no; I don't think she is.' This answer
confirmed the boy in his theory. He knew that dead people did not come
"The attitude of Jones toward this descriptive legend of the man
with the axe was very peculiar. He came to be in opposition to it. He
protested against the convictions of the children, but he could not
move them. It was the one thing in their lives of which they were
stonily and absolutely positive.
"Now that really ends the story. But I will continue for your
amusement. The jury hung Jones as high as they could, and they were
quite right: because Jones confessed before he died. Freddy is now a
highly respected driver of a grocery wagon in Ogdensburg. When I was up
there a good many years afterward people told me that when he ever
spoke of the tragedy at all he was certain to denounce the alleged
confession as a lie. He considered his father a victim to the stupidity
of juries, and some day he hopes to meet the man with the red hair,
big white teeth, and white hands, whose image still remains so distinct
in his memory that he could pick him out in a crowd of ten thousand."