New York by Stephen Crane
ITS WORST DAYS HAVE NOW PASSED AWAY. BUT ITS INHABITANTS STILL
INCLUDE MANY WHOSE DEEDS ARE EVIL.
THE CELEBRATED RESORT OF MAMMY ROSS.
Minetta Lane is a small and becobbled valley between hills and dingy
brick. At night the street lamps, burning dimly, cause the shadows to
be important, and in the gloom one sees groups of quietly conversant
negroes, with occasionally the gleam of a passing growler. Everything
is vaguely outlined and of uncertain identity, unless, indeed, it be
the flashing buttons and shield of the policeman on his coast. The
Sixth Avenue horse-cars jingle past one end of the lane, and a block
eastward the little thoroughfare ends in the darkness of M'Dougall
One wonders how such an insignificant alley could get such an
assuredly large reputation, but, as a matter of fact, Minetta Lane and
Minetta Street, which leads from it southward to Bleecker Street, were,
until a few years ago, two of the most enthusiastically murderous
thoroughfares in New York. Bleecker Street, M'Dougall Street, and
nearly all the streets thereabouts were most unmistakably bad; the
other streets went away and hid. To gain a reputation in Minetta Lane
in those days a man was obliged to commit a number of furious crimes,
and no celebrity was more important than the man who had a good honest
killing to his credit. The inhabitants, for the most part, were
negroes, and they represented the very worst element of their race. The
razor habit clung to them with the tenacity of an epidemic, and every
night the uneven cobbles felt blood. Minetta Lane was not a public
thoroughfare at this period. It was a street set apart, a refuge for
criminals. Thieves came here preferably with their gains, and almost
any day peculiar sentences passed among the inhabitants. Big Jim
turned a thousand last night. No-Toe's made another haul. And the
worshipful citizens would make haste to be present at the consequent
As has been said, Minetta Lane was then no thoroughfare. A peaceable
citizen chose to make a circuit rather than venture through this place,
that swarmed with the most dangerous people in the city. Indeed, the
thieves of the district used to say: Once get in the lane and you're
all right. Even a policeman in chase of a criminal would probably shy
away instead of pursuing him into the lane. The odds were too great
against a lone officer.
Sailors, and any men who might appear to have money about them, were
welcomed with all proper ceremony at the terrible dens of the lane. At
departure they were fortunate if they still retained their teeth. It
was the custom to leave very little else to them. There was every
facility for the capture of coin, from trap-doors to plain ordinary
And yet Minetta Lane is built on the grave of Minetta Brook, where,
in olden times, lovers walked under the willows on the bank, and
Minetta Lane, in later times, was the home of many of the best families
of the town.
A negro named Bloodthirsty was perhaps the most luminous figure of
Minetta Lane's aggregation of desperadoes. Bloodthirsty supposedly is
alive now, but he has vanished from the lane. The police want him for
murder. Bloodthirsty is a large negro, and very hideous. He has a
rolling eye that shows white at the wrong time, and his neck, under the
jaw, is dreadfully scarred and pitted.
Bloodthirsty was particularly eloquent when drunk, and in the
wildness of a spree he would rave so graphically about gore that even
the habitated wool of old timers would stand straight.
Bloodthirsty meant most of it, too. That is why his orations were
impressive. His remarks were usually followed by the wide, lightning
sweep of his razor. None cared to exchange epithets with Bloodthirsty.
A man in a boiler iron suit would walk down to City Hall and look at
the clock before he would ask the time of day from the single-minded
and ingenuous Bloodthirsty.
After Bloodthirsty, in combative importance, came No-Toe Charley.
Singularly enough, Charley was called No-Toe Charley because he did not
have a toe on his feet. Charley was a small negro, and his manner of
amusement befitting a smaller man. Charley was more wise, more sly,
more round-about than the other man. The path of his crimes was like a
corkscrew in architecture, and his method led him to make many tunnels.
With all his cleverness, however, No-Toe was finally induced to pay a
visit to the gentlemen in the grim, grey building up the riverSing
Black-Cat was another famous bandit who made the land his home.
Black-Cat is dead. Jube Tyler has been sent to prison, and after
mentioning the recent disappearance of Old Man Spriggs it may be said
that the lane is now destitute of the men who once crowned it with a
glory of crime. It is hardly essential to mention Guinea Johnson.
Guinea is not a great figure. Guinea is just an ordinary little
crook. Sometimes Guinea pays a visit to his friends, the other little
crooks who make homes in the lane, but he himself does not live there,
and with him out of it there is now no one whose industry's
unlawfulness has yet earned him the dignity of a nickname. Indeed, it
is difficult to find people now who remember the old gorgeous days,
although it is but two years since the lane shone with sin like a new
head-light. But after a search the reporter found three.
Mammy Ross is one of the last relics of the days of slaughter still
living there. Her weird history also reaches back to the blossoming of
the first members of the Whyo gang in the Old Sixth Ward, and her mind
is stored with bloody memories. She at one time kept a sailors'
boarding-house near the Tombs prison, and the accounts of all the
festive crimes of that neighbourhood in ancient years roll easily from
her tongue. They killed a sailor man every day, and pedestrians went
about the streets wearing stoves for fear of the handy knives. At the
present day the route to Mammy's home is up a flight of grimy stairs
that are pasted on the outside of an old and tottering frame house.
Then there is a hall blacker than a wolf's throat, and this hall leads
to a little kitchen where Mammy usually sits groaning by the fire. She
is, of course, very old, and she is also very fat. She seems always to
be in great pain. She says she is suffering from de very las' dregs of
de yaller fever.
During the first part of a reporter's recent visit, old Mammy seemed
most dolefully oppressed by her various diseases. Her great body shook
and her teeth clicked spasmodically during her long and painful
respirations. From time to time she reached her trembling hand and drew
a shawl closer about her shoulders. She presented as true a picture of
a person undergoing steady, unchangeable, chronic pain as a patent
medicine firm could wish to discover for miraculous purposes. She
breathed like a fish thrown out on the bank, and her old head
continually quivered in the nervous tremors of the extremely aged and
debilitated person. Meanwhile her daughter hung over the stove and
placidly cooked sausages.
Appeals were made to the old woman's memory. Various personages who
had been sublime figures of crime in the long-gone days were mentioned
to her, and presently her eyes began to brighten. Her head no longer
quivered. She seemed to lose for a period her sense of pain in the
gentle excitement caused by the invocation of the spirits of her
It appears that she had had a historic quarrel with Apple Mag. She
first recited the prowess of Apple Mag; how this emphatic lady used to
argue with paving stones, carving knives, and bricks. Then she told of
the quarrel; what Mag said; what she said. It seems that they cited
each other as spectacles of sin and corruption in more fully
explanatory terms than are commonly known to be possible. But it was
one of Mammy's most gorgeous recollections, and, as she told it, a
smile widened over her face.
Finally she explained her celebrated retort to one of the most
illustrious thugs that had blessed the city in bygone days. Ah says to
'im, ah says: 'Youyou'll die in yer boots like Gallopin'
Thompsondat's what you'll do. You des min' dat', honey. Ah got o'ny
one chile, an' he ain't nuthin' but er cripple; but le'me tel' you,
man, dat boy'll live t' pick de feathers f'm de goose dat'll eat de
grass dat grows over your grave, man.' Dat's what I tol' 'm. Butlaw
sakehow I know dat in less'n three day, dat man be lying in de gutter
wif a knife stickin' out'n his back. Lawd, no, I sholy never s'pected
noting like dat.
These reminiscences, at once maimed and reconstructed, have been
treasured by old Mammy as carefully, as tenderly, as if they were the
various little tokens of an early love. She applies the same
black-handed sentiment to them, and, as she sits groaning by the fire,
it is plainly to be seen that there is only one food for her ancient
brain, and that is the recollection of the beautiful fights and murders
of the past.
On the other side of the lane, but near Mammy's house, Pop Babcock
keeps a restaurant. Pop says it is a restaurant, and so it must be one;
but you could pass there ninety times each day and never know you were
passing a restaurant. There is one obscure little window in the
basement, and if you went close and peered in you might, after a time,
be able to make out a small, dusty sign, lying amid jars on a dusty
shelf. This sign reads: Oysters in every style. If you are of a
gambling turn of mind, you will probably stand out in the street and
bet yourself black in the face that there isn't an oyster within a
hundred yards. But Pop Babcock made that sign, and Pop Babcock could
not tell an untruth. Pop is a model of all the virtues which an
inventive fate has made for us. He says so.
As far as goes the management of Pop's restaurant, it differs from
Sherry's. In the first place, the door is always kept locked. The
wardmen of the Fifteenth precinct have a way of prowling through the
restaurant almost every night, and Pop keeps the door locked in order
to keep out the objectionable people that cause the wardmen's visits.
He says so. The cooking stove is located in the main room of the
restaurant, and it is placed in such a strategic manner that it
occupies about all the space that is not already occupied by a table, a
bench, and two chairs. The table will, on a pinch, furnish room for the
plates of two people if they are willing to crowd. Pop says he is the
best cook in the world.
When questioned concerning the present condition of the lane, Pop
said: Quiet! Quiet! Lo'd save us, maybe it ain't. Quiet! Quiet! His
emphasis was arranged crescendo, until the last word was really a vocal
explosion. Why, dish er' lane ain't nohow like what it uster beno,
indeed it ain't. No, sir. 'Deed it ain't. Why, I kin remember when dey
was a-cuttin' an' a-slashin' long yere all night. 'Deed dey wos. My-my,
dem times was different. Dat der Kent, he kep' de place at Green Gate
cou't down yer ol' Mammy'san' he was a hard baby'deed he wasan'
ol' Black-Cat an' ol' Bloodthirsty, dey was a-comin' round yere
a-cuttin', an' a-slashin', an' a-cuttin', an' a-slashin'. Didn't dar'
say boo to a goose in dose days, dat you didn't, less'n you lookin' fer
a scrap. No, sir. Then he gave information concerning his own prowess
at that time. Pop is about as tall as a picket of an undersized fence.
But dey didn't have nothin' ter say ter me. No, sir, 'deed dey didn't.
I would lay down fer none of 'em. No, sir. Dey knew my gait, 'deed dey
did. Man, man, many's de time I buck up agin 'em.
At this time Pop had three customers in his place, one asleep on the
bench, one asleep on two chairs, and one asleep on the floor behind the
But there is one who lends dignity of the real bevel-edged type to
Minetta Lane, and that man is Hank Anderson. Hank, of course, does not
live in the lane, but the shadows of his social perfections fall upon
it as refreshingly as a morning dew.
Hank gave a dance twice in each week at a hall hard by in M'Dougall
Street, and the dusky aristocracy of the neighbourhood know their
guiding beacon. Moreover, Hank holds an annual ball in Forty-fourth
Street. Also, he gives a picnic each year to the Montezuma Club, when
he again appears as a guiding beacon. This picnic is usually held on a
barge, and the excursion is a very joyous one. Some years ago it
required the entire reserve squad of an up-town police precinct to
properly control the enthusiasm of the gay picnickers, but that was an
exceptional exuberance, and no measure of Hank's ability for
He is really a great manager. He was Boss Tweed's body-servant in
the days when Tweed was a political prince, and any one who saw Bill
Tweed through a spy-glass learned the science of leading, pulling,
driving, and hauling men in a way to keep the men ignorant of it. Hank
imbibed from this fount of knowledge, and he applied his information in
Thompson Street. Thompson Street salaamed. Presently he bore a proud
title: The Mayor of Thompson Street. Dignities from the principal
political organisations of the city adorned his brow, and he speedily
Hank knew the lane well in its direful days. As for the inhabitants,
he kept clear of them, and yet in touch with them, according to a
method that he might have learned in the Sixth ward. The Sixth ward was
a good place in which to learn that trick. Anderson can tell many
strange tales and good of the lane, and he tells them in the graphic
way of his class. Why, they could steal your shirt without moving a
wrinkle on it.
The killing of Joe Carey was the last murder that happened in the
Minettas. Carey had what might be called a mixed-ale difference with a
man named Kenny. They went out to the middle of Minetta Street to
affably fight it out and determine the justice of the question.
In the scrimmage Kenny drew a knife, thrust quickly, and Carey fell.
Kenny had not gone a hundred feet before he ran into the arms of a
There is probably no street in New York where the police keep closer
watch than they do in Minetta Lane. There was a time when the
inhabitants had a profound and reasonable contempt for the public
guardians, but they have it no longer apparently. Any citizen can walk
through there at any time in perfect safety, unless, perhaps, he should
happen to get too frivolous. To be strictly accurate, the change began
under the reign of police Captain Chapman. Under Captain Groo, a
commander of the Fifteenth precinct, the lane donned a complete new
garb. Its denizens brag now of its peace, precisely as they once
bragged of its war. It is no more a bloody lane. The song of the razor
is seldom heard. There are still toughs and semi-toughs galore in it,
but they can't get a chance with the copper looking the other way. Groo
got the poor lane by the throat. If a man should insist upon becoming a
victim of the badger game, he could probably succeed, upon search in
Minetta Lane, as indeed, he could on any of the great avenues, but then
Minetta Lane is not supposed to be a pearly street of Paradise.
In the meantime the Italians have begun to dispute the possession of
the lane with the negroes. Green Gate Court is filled with them now,
and a row of houses near the M'Dougall Street corner is occupied
entirely by Italian families. None of them seem to be over fond of the
old Mulberry Bend fashion of life, and there are no cutting affrays
among them worth mentioning. It is the original negro element that
makes the trouble when there is trouble.
But they are happy in this condition are these people. The most
extraordinary quality of the negro is his enormous capacity for
happiness under most adverse circumstances. Minetta Lane is a place of
poverty and sin, but these influences cannot destroy the broad smile of
the negroa vain and simple child, but happy. They all smile here, the
most evil as well as the poorest. Knowing the negro, one always expects
laughter from him, be he ever so poor, but it was a new experience to
see a broad grin on the face of the devil. Even old Pop Babcock had a
laugh as fine and mellow as would be the sound of falling glass, broken
saints from high windows, in the silence of some great cathedral's