Model Yacht Building, A Sloop Yacht
The boat here described is a model of a sloopyacht of about fifteen
tons measurement, fortyfour feet long, and fifteen feet beam; the
model, on a scale of half an inch to the foot, being consequently
twentytwo inches long, on the waterline, and seven and a half inches
wide. The wood should be a block of clear dry pine, twentyfive inches
long, seven and a half inches wide, and five inches thick, the sides
being first planed square; then on one of the fiveinch sides lines are
drawn two inches apart across the block; the waterline (W L, Fig. 2) is
drawn two inches and thirteensixteenths from the top at the end
selected for the bow, and two inches and fivesixteenths at the stern;
the sternpost (s t) is laid off, and the outer line of the stern (t
f); and finally the curved lines a f and a v are drawn, completing
what is called the sheer plan.
In copying from the drawings it must be kept in mind that they are
exactly onefourth the full size, so that any distance taken from them
with the dividers must be laid off four times on the block.
To copy the curved lines, their distance from some line, as A B or W L,
is measured on each of the twoinch lines, by which a number of points
on the curve are found, and a line drawn as nearly as possible through
all of them by means of a flexible ruler, held in place by pins.
The block must now be cut away to the outline a f t s v, after which
lines two inches apart are drawn on the top, the line A B drawn entirely
around the block in the centre of the top, bottom, and ends, and Fig. 1
drawn on top, both halves being of course the same.
The block is next cut to the line a b c d, Fig. 1, the widest part
being, not on deck, but along the line c d, as there is some "tumble
home" from b to the stern.
The outline of the deck is a b e f, the stern being a segment of a
circle of five inches radius.
A piece of thin board must be cut of the shape of Fig. 5 (which is half
size), which is the widest part of the boat, and is fourteen inches from
the bow, and by using it for a guide, both sides may be cut out exactly
alike.
The stem piece, half an inch thick, and the sternpost, fivesixteenths
of an inch, are sawed out, and tacked in place temporarily, and a wooden
keel of the shape shown in Fig. 4 (marked "Lead Keel"), half an inch
thick, tapering to fivesixteenths where it joins the sternpost, is
fitted in between them.
The shaping of the hull may now be completed, using a gouge, spokeshave,
and rasp, keeping the midship section for a guide, and running the
curved surfaces smoothly and evenly into the sides of the keel, stern,
and stem, the latter tapering to fivesixteenths of an inch forward.
The hole for the rudderstock is next bored, onefourth of an inch in
diameter, and burned out with a moderately hot iron to fivesixteenths
of an inch; then, should the stock swell when wet, it will not stick in
the charred wood, but will still turn freely.
The keel, stem, and stern are removed, to avoid injury to them, and the
line l m n o p, Fig. 1, is drawn, after which the wood inside is cut
away with a large gouge or carving tool, until it is onefourth of an
inch thick, care being taken to have it all an even thickness, and not
to cut through at any point, and also to leave the wood solid around the
rudderhole.
After the hollowing out is completed, a rabbet oneeighth of an inch
wide and deep is cut to receive the deck, its outer line being g h i
k, Fig. 1. Then a light deck beam is set in amidships, the mast step
put in, and the inside of the hull and the bottom of the deck painted.
The deck is of pine, oneeighth of an inch thick, and after being cut
out should have lines scratched in with the compasses threeeighths of
an inch from each edge to represent the waterways, and parallel lines
onefourth of an inch apart scratched in to represent the joints of the
deck plank.
Now the deck is laid and tacked down, and the joints painted, and calked
if needed, the stem and sternpost replaced permanently, and the
bowsprit screwed to the deck and stem.
The length of the bowsprit is eight and a half inches from the point
a, Fig. 4, to the outer end, threesixteenths of an inch in diameter,
and three inches from a to the inner end, where it is framed into the
bitts, the inner end being half an inch square.
A piece (x, Fig. 4) is next fitted on deck at the stern, forming the
after portion of the bulwarks, which on the sides are oneeighth of an
inch thick, flaring out at the bow, where they are nailed to the
bowsprit, and tumbling in aft, where they are nailed to the piece x, a
strip oneeighth of an inch thick (shown in Fig. 5) being first tacked
to the deck, and the bulwarks nailed against it. Small brads should be
used in nailing.
The rail is of walnut or mahogany, onefourth by threethirtysecondths
of an inch, nailed on top of the bulwarks, and running out on the
bowsprit to a point (Fig. 3).
For a sailing model a leaden keel of about two pounds is needed, a mould
being made in plaster of Paris from the wooden pattern, and the melted
lead poured in, after which it is smoothed with a plane. It is put on
temporarily, and the boat, when rigged, put in the water; then enough
may be planed off to make her trim properly, and the keel put on
permanently.
The mast is twentyone inches from deck, where it is half an inch in
diameter, to cap, where it is a quarter of an inch square, and the
topmast is eleven inches long, projecting eight inches above the lower
mast.
The boom is twentytwo inches long, fitted to the mast by wire staples;
and the gaff, fourteen inches long, has two jaws embracing the mast.
All spars are of yellow pine; the rigging is of fishingline; and the
blocks, fivesixteenths of an inch long, and the deadeyes, onefourth
of an inch in diameter, are cut out of any hard wood. The lower one of
each pair of deadeyes has a wire looped around it, the other end being
turned up, and driven into the boat's side, as in Fig. 5.
The upper end of each shroud has a loop spliced in, which goes over the
masthead, and a deadeye is spliced into the lower end.
The forestay has a loop at the top, and runs through the bowsprit,
forming a bobstay.
Davits are placed on each bow for the anchor, and two on each side for
the boats, and a capstan stands just forward of the mast.
The skylights and companion way are of mahogany, and with the decks,
spars, and rail, are varnished, the rest of the hull being painted
black, white, or green, and that portion below the waterline being
varnished, and dusted over with bronze powder, and when perfectly dry,
varnished again, giving the appearance of metal sheathing.
The sails are of muslin or lawn, and are laced to the boom and gaff and
to curtainrings on the mast, or for the jibs the common "eye" used for
dresses makes a capital jib hank, and will slip readily up and down the
forestay.
The drawings show all the remaining details, and by following them
carefully a handsome and able boat may be built.
